< Let’s think about it before the main point>
“Essentially Leadership is a relationship through which one person influences the behavior or actions of other people” (Mullins, 2013, p367)
Ken Blanchard (2009), ‘The 4 Keys to Effective Leadership’
1. Leadership : the most important force to operate organizations
According to conventional definition, leadership is expressed to ‘letting others to follow willingly’ or ‘letting others to do something through authoritative decision making’ (Mullins, 2013). No organization can exist without a few leading leader and following majority. A leader should induce obedience from following majority, as a result of this, organization can be activated. However, organizations have multiple spectrums by the grounds and shapes of leadership, especially, with the change of the organization and its environment, the focus of leadership is changing from ‘command and control’ to ‘teamwork and vision’ (CBI, 2005).
2. Effective Leadership Model
As a most important force to operate organization, the endeavor to search for effective leadership has been done for a long time. The starting point is distinction between leadership and management (or leader and manager). By Mintzberg, he insists that it should be nonsense or impossible to distinguish the both in practice regardless of concept distinction (Mintzberg, 2009). However, most scholars have advanced distinction of the both. For example, according to Kent, he derived remarkable characteristics as follows (Kent, 2005);
- “Managers do things right; Leaders do the right things”
- “Managing is an authority relationship; Leading is an influence relationship”
- “Managing creates stability; Leading creates change”
This continuous debate could provide for a deeper understanding of the dynamics behind the two processes even though could not give a clear answer (Ibid). Moreover, when it comes to effective leadership, they can be divided into largely three models on the basis of ground of leadership; the qualities or traits approach (leader centered), the functional or group approach (follower centered), and the situational approach. Firstly, the qualities approach pay attention to leader’s characteristics and not on the job itself (Mullins, 2013). P. Drucker compacted as follow; “leadership cannot be taught or learned” (1989). Secondly, functional approach focuses on the nature of the group, the followers or subordinates. This approach admits that leadership can be developed, learned and perfected. Lastly, the contingency or situational approach emphasizes the situation as the dominant feature in considering the characteristics of effective leadership (Mullins, 2013). With today’s rapid change, considering leadership has very complex aspects on the basis of relationships, and situation approach is more effective to explain or adapt leadership in reality than rest two approaches. In addition, nowadays, severe competition and continuous crisis make leaders to implement new roles such as innovation lead and vision present; transformational leadership and inspirational or visionary leadership.
3. The trend of effective Leadership & Examples
As Mcgregor conclude, it is need multiple variables to activate leadership well under the conditions of complex relationship (Mcgregor, 1987). Some scholars such as Kouzes and Posner chose credibility as the fountain of leadership. Other scholar like Fullen focused on the importance of relationship building as a core of effective leadership. Besides those, there are many factors which are chosen as most important by leadership experts; the type of power, responsibility, culture, authority, nature of the tasks, organization structure and system of management and so on. Considering into all factors, there are a certain flow apart from the past. In other words, no more expectation does only a factor lead to effective leadership and, more importantly, people perceive that the contents and format of leadership should change according to situations. Today’s SAMSUNG is made by ‘Frankfurt declaration for New Management’ in 1995. In that time, new CEO of SAMSUNG, Lee-Gunhee, demanded to change all things such as system, value and culture except wife and children. Especially, he emphasized on qualities of product and this led to SAMSUNG culture that quality is most important. Evaluating leadership on that time, it was charismatic leadership in crisis breaking through organization which fell into mannerism. However, that type can’t always be answer. In my interested industry (hospitality industry), drastic change by leader is likely to be harmful because hospitality industry including hotel and restaurant have long-term relationship with its customers and those measures effect on unintentional discomfort. Moreover, in case of club Med, even though it was inevitable and adequate choice for new CEO (Bourguignon) to implement strongly a severe cost cutting plan in 1998 to break through the crisis, it had no choice but to stop in three years because downturn of tourism happened because of unexpected terrorism (9/11) and it gave opportunity for resentful employee to throw out CEO with strong leadership (Johnson etc, 2011). After all, what it is good or bad leadership depends not on leadership itself but situations.
With the help of continuous economy downturn and crisis, leadership has become more important value. In accompanied with them, change into democratic society on the basis of delegation and trust demands leadership style different from the past. In conclusion, leaders should endeavor to choose the effective leadership according to the situation.
Laurie J. Mullins (2013), ‘Management & Organizational Behavior’, 10th Edition, PEARSON
CBI (2005), ‘The Path to Leadership: Developing a sustainable Model within Organizations’, Caspian Publishing
Mintzberg. H (2009), ‘managing’, Financial Times Prentice Hall
Kent, T. W (2005), ‘Leading and Managing: It takes Two to Tango’, Management Decision vol.43
Mcgregor, D (1987), ‘The Human side of Enterprise’, Penguin
Johnson etc(2011), ‘EXPLORING STRATEGY’, Pearson
Wall Street Journal (ND), ‘What is the Difference Between Management and Leadership?’ [Online] Available from http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/what-is-the-difference-between-management-and-leadership/ 30 May 2015
Eva Rykrsmith (2013), ‘4 step to become a transformational leader’, Intuit QuickBase [Online] Available from http://quickbase.intuit.com/blog/2013/03/13/4-steps-to-becoming-a-transformational-leader/